The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A.
The Church of Jesus Christ teaches independence, industry, thrift, and self-reliance.
"As you know, in the recent past we have placed considerable emphasis on personal and family preparedness. I hope that each member of the church is responding appropriately to this direction. I also hope that we are understanding and accentuating the positive and not the negative.
"I like the way the Relief Society teaches personal and family preparedness as ‘provident living.’ This implies the husbanding of our resources, the wise planning of financial matters, full provision for personal health, and adequate preparation for education and career development, giving appropriate attention to home production and storage as well as the development of emotional resiliency" (Spencer W. Kimball, "Welfare Services: The Gospel in Action," Ensign, Nov 1977, p.78)
Latter-day Saints have been counseled to prepare to care for themselves and their families in time of need. Personal and family preparedness should be a way of life, a way of provident living. Being provident involves being "wise, frugal, prudent, making provision for the future while attending to immediate needs" (Barbara B. Smith, "Teach LDS Women Self-Sufficiency," Ensign, May 1976, p. 118). One area of personal and family preparedness is home production and storage.
"Home production and storage is a very necessary element of personal and family preparedness; however, it is not the only element, nor is it necessarily the most significant element. Some people have reacted to the theme of preparedness as if it were a doomsday matter. In reality, all six elements of personal and family preparedness are to be emphasized so that the Latter-day Saints may be better prepared to meet the ordinary, day-to-day requirements of successful living.
"Our emphasis on this subject is not grounds for crisis thinking or panic. Quite the contrary, personal and family preparedness should be a way of provident living, an orderly approach to using the resources, gifts, and talents the Lord shares with us. So the first step is to teach our people to be self-reliant and independent through proper preparation for daily life" (Victor L. Brown, "Welfare Services Essentials: The Bishops Storehouse," Ensign, Nov. 1976, pp. 112-113).
Each person or family should produce as much as possible through gardening, sewing, and making household items. Each person and family should learn techniques of home canning, freezing and drying foods, and where legally permitted, should store and save a one-year supply of food, clothing, and if possible, fuel.
Let every Latter-day Saint that has land, produce some valuable, essential foodstuff thereon and then preserve it; or if he cannot produce an essential foodstuff, let him produce some other kind and exchange it for an essential foodstuff; let them who have no land of their own, and who have knowledge of farming and gardening, try to rent some, either by themselves or with others, and produce foodstuff thereon, and preserve it. Let those who have land produce enough extra to help their less fortunate brethren" (Conference Report, April 1942, p.89; Messages of the First Presidency, vol. 6 [Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, Incl, 1975], p. 151).
"We encourage you to grow all the food that you feasiblely can on your own property. Berry bushes, grapevines, fruit trees-plant them if your climate is right for their growth. Grow vegetables and eat them from your own yard. Even those residing in apartments or condominiums can generally grow a little food in pots and planters. Study the best methods of providing your own foods. Make your garden...neat and attractive as well as productive. If there are children in your home, involve them in the process with assigned responsibilities...
"Wherever possible, produce
your nonfood necessities of life. Improve your sewing skills; sew and mend clothing for your family. All the girls want to learn to type, they all want to go to an office. They don’t seem to want to sew any more, and to plant and protect and renew the things that they use. Develop handicraft skills as the sisters have told us, and make or build needed items" (Spencer W. Kimball, "Family Preparedness," Ensign, May 1976, pp. 124-5: Conference Report, April 1976, pp 170-1).
"....Grow all the food you possibly can. Also remember to buy a year’s supply of garden seeds so that, in case of shortage, you will have them for the following spring.
"....Raise animals where means and local laws permit" (Vaughn J. Feather stone, Ensign, May 1976, pp. 116-7).
"....We will see the day when we will live on what we produce" (Marion G. Romney, Conference Report, April 1975, p. 165)
To determine proper varieties and quality of seed, planting dates, and correct procedures for your geographical area, obtain current information and assistance from local government, university, or other qualified sources.
The following general rules are appropriate for most areas:
Every yard has space for a garden. Part of the lawn, play area, or flower garden may be converted to a garden. If you have no yard, vegetables may be grown in window boxes or pots. Plant the garden where it will receive at least four to six hours of direct sunshine each day. The soil should drain well, and an adequate source of water should be available.
Soils that are low in fertility can be improved by the addition of fertilizer. Some fertilizer should be added before tilling, and the remainder should be used during the growing season.
Planning the Garden
Begin with a small garden plot. The garden can be enlarged as you become more experienced and become acquainted with the growing conditions. Draw a garden plan showing the location of each type of plant. You can use this plan the next year in developing a rotation system to control the buildup of disease and insect infestation. The size of the garden and the type of produce should be adapted to local conditions and to your ability to care for them properly. Several crops usually can be planted successively in the same ground during the same year.
What to Plant
When deciding which vegetables and fruits to plant, determine which are suited to your geographical area and will be used by your family. Grow a variety of foods for better nutrition and more interesting eating. In appropriate climates, berry bushes, grapevines, and fruit trees could be included in the garden plan. Consider plants rich in vitamins, especially A and C. Dark green and orange vegetables are rich in vitamin A. Tomatoes, green peppers, strawberries, cantaloupe, and citrus fruits are excellent sources of vitamin C.
When to Plant
Plan the planting times to conform to the length of growing season and to growth requirements for individual plants.
How to Plant
Fine seeds should be scattered on top of the soil and pressed down lightly. As a general rule, larger seeds should be sown at a depth three times the diameter of the seed. Stakes or trellises may be used for climbing plants, such as tomatoes and beans. It is best not to plant fruit trees in a lawn area. The watering and fertilizing program for a lawn is not suitable for fruit trees. Avoid planting so closely that you will not be able to walk or work in the garden.
In addition to eliminating weeds, mulching promotes the retaining of moisture and the building up of the soil. Straw, hay, and grass clippings are all effective mulch. Usually, you should wait until the plants are well above ground before applying the mulch.
Organic matter from the garden and yard and leftover food scraps should be used in a compost pile to prepare nutrients for another crop. Check with local experts for instructions on how to build a compost pile.
Seeds of a good quality should be used. A year’s supply of seed may be stored in a dark, cool place to help maintain seed quality.
The best method to use to preserve any fresh food for storage is determined by such factors as the nature of the food itself, space and equipment available, climate, other storage conditions, and cost. Because any method of food preservation presents both advantages and disadvantages, no single method will solve all storage problems. The following list includes several methods that have been used in various parts of the world for many centuries.
Live Plants and Animals
It is possible to maintain live sources of food in a variety of home situations. Live animals-such as chickens, pigs, rabbits, and goats-may be raised in many areas. Provision for adequate feed for the animals must be considered. A productive year-round garden is possible in tropical and some semitropical climates, and some sort of indoor gardening is feasible in other areas.
Many food products can be dried with little or no cost and equipment using the sun’s rays or a simple stove. In general, this type of drying causes some loss of vitamins and of flavor, especially if the food is dried too long. Some foods may also be dried in an oven or in home dryers that contain a heat source and a fan to circulate the heat.
Smoking and Curing
A type of drying using smoke increases the storage life of food. Curing agents and smoking to preserve the food. Commonly used for preserving meats and fish, these methods greatly alters the flavor of the original product. Use of large amounts of curing agents, such as nitrates and nitrites, may produce cancer-causing substances and is limited by law in the United States.
Salt may be used in the drying to increase storage time of some foods, such as fish. Salt and water brines may be used to prevent the growth of spoilage organisms in some foods. Excess salt may be washed away before the salted food is used.
Concentrated tree saps which contain sugars, such as maple, produce syrups that can be stored. Sugar may be added to fruits or fruit juices to make jams, preserves, and jellies.
Canning or Bottling
Heat-processed foods that are sealed in a closed container, such as a glass bottle or a tin can, can be stored for a year or more. However, appropriate containers, equipment, and fuel are necessary for this process and may be expensive. Low acid foods, such as vegetables and meats, may cause severe illness and death if they are improperly processed. Canning must be done in a steam or water bath and not in the oven.
In cool climates, some foods may be stored for short lengths of time in spring houses, root cellars, cool dark rooms, or bins of sand.
Cold Storage and Freezing
Refrigeration and freezing are useful ways of preserving many foods. However, these methods usually take a great deal of space and fuel consumption unless the food can be stored outside in very cold climates.
Fermenting and Pickling
Fermented or pickled products include pickles, sauerkraut, fermented soybean curd, and pickled eggs and olives. These methods make it possible to store vegetables for several months.
Production of Nonfood Items
In order to become independent and to stimulate their industry and thrift, individuals and families should develop skills in making and producing nonfood essentials. Home production of nonfood items might include the following:
Material left from sewing or from outgrown clothing can be used to make bedding.
Hand and machine sewing skills should be learned and practiced. Knitting, crocheting, and weaving are also useful for clothing production. A provident homemaker can make over and refurbish used clothing.
Soap can be made out of fats drained from cooked foods, but lye is also necessary. Lye should be handled and stored with great care.
When a source of coal or wood is not available, fuels can be made by the following methods:
1. Newspaper logs. Divide newspapers into sections and fold the sections to the size of half a page. Soak the folded sections in a tub of water to which a Tbs. of detergent has been added. While they are still wet, roll the sections individually on a rod one inch in diameter; squeeze out the excess water. Slide the rolls off the rod and stand them on end to dry. The rolls are ready to use as fuel when completely dry.
2. Candles. Cut strips of corrugated paper in 1 ½ inch widths. Roll each strip tightly and fit it in a tuna-fish can. Pour melted paraffin wax in the can so that it soaks the paper and fills the remaining space. Each can will burn for 1 ½ to 2 hours.
3. Briquettes. Punch a few holes in an empty can. Place in the can such flammable items as pieces of twigs, limbs and branches from fruit, nut or other hardwood trees; or black walnut, peach or apricot pits. Secure a lid on the can. Heat the can in a hot fire until the flames from the can turn yellow-red. Remove the can from the fire and allow it to cool. Store the briquettes in a moisture proof container until they are needed for fuel.
4. Fire starters can be made by filling paper (not plastic) egg cartons with melted paraffin wax. Tear the cartons into cubes. Build twigs or briquettes around the cube before lighting the paper covering. The paper of the carton burns rapidly, melting and igniting the wax, which starts the fire.
Learning to make simple furniture or refinish old furniture can result in financial savings and can be rewarding.
Planned storage in the home can help individuals and families be self-sustaining in whatever situation they meet. Accident, illness, unemployment, or commodity shortage may affect any family at any time. Wars, depressions, famines, earthquakes, floods, and tornadoes are also possibilities to consider in planning for the care and protection of the family.
President J. Reuben Clark, Jr. counseled that the Saints should save in times of plenty for emergencies in the lean years: "Let every head of every household see to it that he has on hand enough food and clothing, and, where possible, fuel also, for at least a year ahead" (Conference Report, April 1937, p.26).
Other Church leaders have stressed the importance of home storage:
"But the Lord has told us to prepare ourselves individually in our homes; to see to it that we have reserves of food and clothing; and it wouldn’t hurt to have some reserves of cash on hand. One has said: ‘Where preparation has been made, suffering and difficulties will come.’ We don’t mean to alarm people. This has been the message of this Church since the institution of the Welfare Program, and we constantly bring it before you" (John H. Vandenberg, "Program of the Church," Welfare Agricultural Conference, 4 April 1970, p. 374).
Elder Harold B. Lee, in a welfare agricultural meeting on 1 October 1966, said:
"We have never laid down an exact formula for what anybody should store...Perhaps if we think not in terms of a year’s supply of what we ordinarily would use, and think more in terms of what it would take to keep us alive in case we didn’t have anything else to eat, that last would be very easy to put in storage for a year....If you think in terms of that kind of annual storage rather than a whole year’s supply of everything that you are accustomed to eat which, in most cases, is utterly impossible for the average family, I think we will come nearer to what President Clark advised us way back in 1937" ("Storage Problems," p. 76).
The First Presidency has counseled: "The utmost care should be taken to see that foodstuffs so produced and preserved by the householder, do not spoil, for that would be waste, and the Lord looks with disfavor upon waste. He has blessed His people with abundant crops....The Lord is doing His part; He expects us to do ours" (James R. Clark, comp., Messages of the First Presidency of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 6 vols. [Salt lake City: Bookcraft, 1965-75], 6:151 Conference Report, April 1942, p.89).
"....Every precaution should be taken to avoid spoilage. All families should get the finest information available for local areas and condition. Good information can be obtained from colleges and universities, county agents, the U.S. Government printing office and from reliable people in the food business" (John H. Vandenberg, "Counsel for the Church" Welfare Agricultural Meeting, 3 Oct. 1970, p. 390).
"As to the foodstuffs which should be stored, the Church has left that decision primarily to the individual members....
"From the standpoint of food production, storage, handling, and the Lord’s counsel, wheat [or other grains] should have high priority. Water, of course, is essential. Other basics could include honey or sugar, legumes, milk products or substitutes, and salt or its equivalent. The revelation to store food may be as essential to our temporal salvation today as boarding the ark was to the people in the days of Noah" (Ezra Taft Bensen, Conference Report, Oct, 1973, p. 91; "Prepare Ye," Ensign, Jan 1974, pp 69,80)
"We encourage families to have on hand this year’s supply; and we say it over and over the scripture of the Lord where He says, ‘Why call ye me, Lord, Lord, and do not the things which I say?’ How empty it is as they put their spirituality, so called into action and call him by his important names, but fail to do the things which he says" (Spencer W. Kimball, "Family Preparedness," Ensign, May 1976, p. 125; Conference Report, May 1976 p. 171).
Three Categories of Home Storage
Included in basic storage are life-sustaining foods and nonfood items that will store reasonably well for long periods. These include such basic food items as grains (wheat, rice, corn, or other cereal grains), nonfat dried milk, dried fish, legumes (beans and peas), sugar, salt (iodized for some areas), fat, and water. Store a years supply of garden seeds to plant and to supplement the diet. Where garden space is limited, a multiple vitamin pill for daily use by each person may be stored as a safety measure for long periods of emergency. However, vitamin pills deteriorate so must be replaced within two to four years. Fresh taro or sweet potato, live pigs, chickens, and fish might be considered as basic items in areas where it is difficult to store food. Regular use of whole grains is vital to build a digestive tolerance for roughage. Basic storage should also include fuel, bedding, clothing, and medical supplies. (See pages 7-8).
In addition, a grinder (preferably hand powered) for preparing flour (if wheat is the stored grain), recipes for using stored foods, and other such items are necessary.
Each family or individual should have portable container(s) with emergency supplies such as the following: water, food requiring no refrigeration or cooking (graham crackers, canned fruits, canned meats), medications and critical medical histories required by family members, change of clothing, including two pairs of stockings, sanitary supplies, first aid booklet and equipment (see pages 7-8); candles, matches, ax, shovel, can opener; and blanket. The container should be placed where it can be picked up at a moment’s notice. Nearby for easy access should be a packet containing the most valuable of the family’s personal documents, such as genealogical records.
This type of storage would include foods and other daily essentials to supply total nutritional needs and allow for variety and personal preferences in diet and living. This would include items normally used each day, such as baking powder, soda, and spices. Many foods that are adaptable for long-term storage, such as grains and legumes, lack certain essential nutrients; therefore, they need to be supplemented with fruits and vegetables to supply adequate amounts of vitamins A and C (dark green or orange fruits and vegetables and citrus fruits). These items may be stored in root cellars, or they may be bottled, canned, pickled, dehydrated, or freeze-dried. Smoked, canned, or freeze-dried meat and fish supply additional nutrients. Because these foods have limited storage life, they should be used and replaced regularly. Special provision should be made for infants or small children in the family. Soaps and cleaning supplies are essential, and some paper products very useful. (See Barbara B. Smith, "She is Not Afraid of the Snow for her Household," Ensign, Nov 1976, p.121).
Some water reserve should also be considered. The approximate requirement per person on a two week basis is fourteen gallons (seven gallons for drinking and seven gallons for other uses). Storage may be in plastic bottles, to which sodium hypochlorite (bleach may be added if the purity of the water is in doubt (generally one-half tsp. per five gallons if the water is clear and one tsp. Per five gallons if the water is cloudy).
Sterilized water may also be stored (To sterilize, boil water one to three minutes and pour into hot sterilized jars with sterilized lids, or process bottles of water in a water bath-twenty minutes for a quart jar and twenty-five minutes for a two-quart jar).
In cases of emergency, the water in water beds, water heaters, toilet tanks, and cisterns may be purified and used. Water heaters should be drained periodically to release any accumulated sediment so that the full capacity of the container is readily usable. Do not use bleach to purify water in water beds; obtain from the manufacturer a purifier that will not harm the plastic material in the bed.
Because it is impractical to store a year’s supply of water in most places, it may be wise to store water-purifying agents.
First Aid Supplies
Basic emergency home storage should include first aid supplies. Store first aid supplies together in a metal, wood, straw, or plastic container with a tightly fitted cover. Supplies may be kept organized by dividing the box into compartments. Although you should check with your family doctor for any specific medicines and supplies that your family might require for an emergency, the following items are standard first aid supplies:
Calamine lotion (for sunburn and insect bites)
Ipecac syrup (induces vomiting)
First aid instruction book
Medications prescribed by physician
First aid kits and supplies should be checked and replenished regularly. Old or contaminated supplies are unsafe and should be replaced. Tubes or plastic bottles eliminate breakage. All supplies should be labeled and organized for fast use. (Another important emergency precaution is to have tetanus immunization regularly-at least every ten years. When deep or dirty wounds occur, a booster shot is recommended).
Sufficient durable clothing should be included in a home storage program to meet the family’s requirements for at least a year. This clothing should accommodate seasonal needs.
Where possible and practical, it is wise also to store fabric, thread, needles, and other sewing items. The provident consumer takes advantage of sales of material suitable for clothing that the family may require and will store these purchases until needed. A family can also save money by keeping a supply of clean used clothing that can be used in making needed clothes. A reserve of bedding should also be included.
Fuel and Light
If possible, a reserve of fuel (coal, oil, wood, etc.) Should be part of the storage plan, at least enough for cooking purposes. Various supplementary heating and cooking units-some portable-are available. The best types can be used in an emergency both for the preparation of foods and for warmth. Storage of fuel can be dangerous, and in some areas it is prohibited by law.
Suggestions for Storage
Home storage should consist of a year’s supply of basic food, clothing, and where possible, fuel. After this goal has been reached, emergency and expanded storage should be begun.
People who are immobile situations (such as the armed forces and school) or who have small homes with limited storage area should prepare as best they can for emergencies. Basic food items often can be stored in rather limited space. Closets, attics, space under beds, and even space made available by family or friends can be used. It is wiser to have food storage sufficient for only a few weeks or months than to have no storage at all. The food storage program should be adapted to meet individual needs, but the following general suggestions may be helpful:
1. The choice of foods for storage depends on availability, nutritive value, cost, storage qualities and other considerations.
2. Store a variety of foods, as no single food has all the essential nutrients in the correct proportions.
3. Store the highest quality or grade of food obtainable. Wheat should be cereal grade, double cleaned, at least 11% protein, and no more than 10% moisture.
4. Foods should be stored in sturdy metal, plastic or glass containers with tightly fitting lids. Sturdy wooden, straw, or earthenware containers may also be used, but a plastic bag liner should be used to protect the food from possible contamination.
5. Foods should be stored in areas that permit easy access and allow control of temperature and humidity. (In general, cool temperatures prolong storage life and quality.) Not all storage items should be located in one area of the house; not all should be stored in one type of container.
6. To destroy insects that may infest grains, nuts, dried fruit, or other foods, place the food in a home freezer and keep it at 0_F (or below) for four days. As an alternative, the food may be sterilized by being heated in an oven at a low temperature (setting of warm or 200_F) for about one hour, depending on the nature of the food. Spread the food on shallow pans so that the heat can penetrate easily. Stir the food occasionally to keep it from scorching. Dry ice kills most adult insects and larvae, but it probably will not destroy the eggs or pupae. Pour two inches of wheat into the bottom of the container. Add dry ice; then fill with wheat. Eight ounces of dry ice is recommended for one hundred pounds of grain, or one pound of each thirty gallons of stored grain. Seal the containers loosely for five to six hours; then seal them tightly.
7. Storage should be acquired according to an orderly and systematic plan consistent with the family’s needs. Borrowing money to acquire food storage is discouraged.
8. Food costs can be minimized by budgeting and shopping wisely.
9. Store foods that the family is willing to eat. In times of stress, it may be difficult to eat unfamiliar or disliked foods.
10. Stored foods should be used and replaced on a regular basis to maintain quality and minimize waste.
11. Maintain a food inventory and replace items as they are used.
12. Specific information regarding appropriate foods and optimal storage conditions in given localities should be obtained from local universities or government agencies.
Buying and Selling
Reminder to leaders; Merchandising activities not related to the exempt purposes of the Church are not to be conducted by stakes, wards, or quorums. Stakes, wards, and quorums are not to be involved in purchasing and selling items such as food, storage containers, or nonreligious books. (See General Handbook of Instructions, number 21 , pp 107-108) If individuals or groups wish to form independent organizations to obtain group discounts on home storage items, they may do so. These independent groups should abide by local laws and should not be identified with the Church.
Security through home production and storage can be strengthened if members of the Church live righteously, avoid debt, practice thrift, and are willing to work.
Each family or individual is encouraged to participate in home production and storage in order to provide for themselves. "If any provide not for his own, and specially for those of his own house, he hath denied the faith."
(1 Timothy 5:8).
The home production and storage program is an integral part of personal and family preparedness. The program should be undertaken individually, according to the needs of the individual or family. Although the application varies in different locations and circumstances, the responsibility for preparedness remains.
Whole Wheat Bread
1 cup hot water
1 cup brown sugar (or ½ cup molasses and ½ cup white sugar)
6 Tbsp shortening
1 cup warm water
2 Tbsp honey
2 Tbsp yeast
3 cups warm water
4 tsp salt
6 cups white flour
6 cups whole wheat flour
1 cup cracked wheat (optional)
Combine first three ingredients; stir until dissolved. Let stand. Combine next three ingredients; let rise. Combine the above two mixtures. Add warm water, salt, and white flour. Beat vigorously to make a sponge. Mix in whole wheat flour and cracked wheat. Knead, adding more white flour if needed. Let rise until double in bulk. Punch down. Form into loaves, and let rise until double in bulk. Bake at 400_ F for 45 minutes. Makes 6 loaves of bread.
Whole Wheat Cereal
1 cup wheat
2 cups water
½ tsp salt
Mix above ingredients together. Put in shallow pan or slow cooker. Bake overnight at 200_F. Or may soak overnight; then cook on top of stove for 2 hours. Serve with milk and sugar or dates. Wheat may be ground in food blender or grinder for a finer texture.
1 ¾ cups whole wheat flour
1 ½ cups white flour
_ cup oil emulsified in blender with ¾ tsp salt and 1 cup water
Mix dry ingredients. Add oil-salt-water mixture. Knead as little as possible. Makes a smooth dough. Roll dough as thin as possible on unoiled cookie sheet (not more than _ inch)
Mark with knife to size of crackers desired, but do not cut through. Prick each cracker a few times with a fork. Sprinkle dough lightly with salt or onion salt as desired. Bake at 350_F until crisp and light brown 30-35 minutes.
½ cup evaporated milk or (_ cup dry milk powder plus ½ cup water)
2 Tbsp lemon juice or vinegar
Mix the following ingredients in the order listed. Blend well to keep oil in emulsion.
1 cup dark brown sugar
½ cup honey or white sugar
1 cup oil
2 tsp vanilla
2 eggs, beaten slightly
Combine above two mixtures. Add the following:
6 cups whole wheat or graham flour
1 tsp salt
1 tsp soda
Divide mixture into four equal parts. Place each part on a greased and floured cookie sheet. Roll from center to edges until about _ inch thick. Prick with a fork. Bake at 375_F for about 15 minutes or until lightly brown. Remove from oven and cut in squares immediately. Makes 60 crackers.
2 cups coarse-ground whole wheat flour
2 cups water
1 tsp salt
Mix lightly with spoon until free from lumps. Beat just until mixed. Pour onto cookie sheet or jelly roll pan. Use ½ cup dough on a 12 x 15 inch cookie sheet. Tip sheet back and forth to cover entire surface. Drain excess (about ¼ cup) from one corner, leaving a thin film. Bake at 350_ for 15 minutes. Break into bite sized pieces.
Soak wheat in cold water for 24 hours, changing water once or twice during this period; or boil wheat for 30 minutes. (Wheat will triple in volume).
Drain wheat and rinse. Remove excess water by rolling wheat on a cloth or paper towel.
In a heavy kettle, heat vegetable oil to 360_F. Put small amount of wheat (about 1 ½ cups) in a wire basket or strainer and deep fry in hot oil for 1 ½ minutes. Drain on absorbent paper.
Season wheat with salt or other seasonings as desired-garlic, celery, onion, or seasoned salts. This makes a crunchy treat.
1 Tbsp water
1 cup honey
Boil to hard crack stage and pour over Wheat Treats
Ever Lasting Yeast
1 quart warm potato water
½ Tbsp dry yeast
1 tsp salt
2 Tbsp sugar
2 cups white flour or whole wheat flour
Stir all ingredients together. Place mixture in a warm place to rise until ready to mix for baking. Leave a small amount of everlasting yeast for a start for next time. Between uses, keep in covered jar in refrigerator until a few hours before ready to use again.
Add same ingredients, except yeast to the everlasting yeast start for the next baking. By keeping the everlasting yeast start and remaking some each time, yeast can be kept on hand indefinitely.
Sour Dough Starter
2 cups white flour or whole wheat flour
2 cup warm water
2 tsp honey or sugar
Mix well. Place in uncovered bottle or crockery jar. Allow mixture to ferment 5 days in a warm room, stirring mixture several times a day. This will aerate the batter and allow the air to activate the mixture. It will smell yeasty, and small bubbles will come to the top.
After using some yeast for baking, "feed" the starter (to replace the amount used in baking) by using equal parts of flour and water or potato water. In 24 hours the yeast will form and work and be ready for the next use.
Store unused portion of yeast in the refrigerator in a glass or crockery jar with a tight-fitting lid. Shake the jar often. Activate the yeast again before using by adding 2 to 3 tbsp of flour and the same amount of water and store. Homemade yeast can be used to replace all or part of the commercial yeast called for in a recipe; allow 24 hours for homemade yeast to rise.
1 quart lukewarm water
2 cups dry milk powder
2 tbsp plain yogurt or dry yogurt starter
Mix all ingredients together. Pour into a thermos bottle and let stand overnight.
To make cream cheese: Hang the finished yogurt in a cheesecloth bag overnight. Add salt to taste.
To make salad dressing or sour cream substitute: add salt and seasonings.
To serve as a dessert: add sugar to taste.
Sweetened Condensed Milk
In a small bowl combine 1 cup plus 2 Tbsp nonfat dry milk and ½ cup warm water. Add ¾ cup sugar, and stir until dissolved. If necessary, set bowl in hot water to hasten dissolving. Although not as thick as regular sweetened condensed milk, this works well as a substitute.
(For use in baking)
Before starting a recipe for cookies, cake, etc., combine 1 tsp unflavored gelatin with 3 Tbsp cold water and 2 Tbsp plus 1 tsp boiling water. This mixture will substitute for 1 egg in a recipe.
French Salad Dressing
1 can condensed tomato soup
1 tsp pepper
1 tsp salt
1 tsp dry mustard
1 tsp Worcestershire sauce
½ cup vinegar
1 cup brown sugar
1 small onion chopped
1 cup salad oil
Combine all ingredients. Shake well and keep in refrigerator.
Rotate your seed storage, as fresh seeds tend to be more viable than those stored for long periods of time. When sprouting, place proper amount of seeds and water in a wide mouthed bottles and soak at least 8 to 12 hours.
After soaking, cover bottle with a piece of nylon stocking, net, or fiberglass window screening. Hold in place with an elastic band or a regular bottle ring so air and water can pass through freely. Pour water in jar and gently shake. Pour off water, and lay jar on its side in a dark place. Repeat this two or three times a day.
Seeds sprouting in two days
Use 2 cups per quart
Seeds sprouting in three to five days
Use the following quantities per quart:
Alfalfa 1 Tbsp
Lentils 2 Tbsp
Clover 2 Tbsp
Mung beans 2 Tbsp
Garbanzo bean ½ cup
Suggestions for Using Sprouts
Mix sprouts into casseroles, nut loaves, meat loaves, poultry dressing, vegetable salads, gelatin salads, soups, stews, egg dishes, souffles, scrambled eggs. For bread dough, use sprouts from wheat, rye, or oats. In soups, stews and omelets, add sprouts just before serving. Navy bean, soybean, and pinto bean sprouts should be cooked.
Most sprouts make a fine crisp salad or sandwich filling when served with a dressing made from cream cheese, cottage cheese, yogurt, avocados, cooked sprouts, mashed beans, or cheese spread.
Alfalfa and lentil sprouts make an excellent salad when used alone or with leafy salad vegetables. Use the dressing of your choice on such a salad.
1 cup uncooked macaroni
1 tsp salt
4 cups boiling water
1 can tuna fish
1 cup chopped vegetables (celery, green pepper, onion, sprouts, cooked peas, carrots, etc.)
Bring water and salt to a boil. Add macaroni. Boil until tender (10 minutes); do not overcook. Drain. Rinse in cold water. Drain again. Chill. Mix with tuna fish (or other cold meats) and vegetables. Marinate with salad dressing to taste (approximately _ cup).
Tuna and Noodle Casserole
8 ounces noodles
1 can tuna fish
1 can condensed mushroom or chicken soup
_ cup milk
½ cup buttered bread crumbs
Cook noodles in 4 cups boiling water. Rinse and drain. Arrange noodles and tuna fish in layers in casserole. Combine soup and milk. Pour over noodles and fish. Top with buttered bread crumbs and a dash of paprika. Bake at 375_F about 25 minutes or until brown. 6 servings.
1 cup corn meal
1 cup white flour
Ground corn may be substituted for above two ingredients
½ cup water
½ tsp salt
Mix ingredients together and knead well. Add small amount of water, if necessary. Let stand for 10 minutes. Knead and pat or slap into the shape of a thin pancake. Add more water or flour as needed. Cook on top of the stove in ungreased heavy iron or Teflon-coated skillet, turning so as to cook through but not to burn.
2 cups dried beans (red kidney or pinto)
4 cups boiling water
1 tsp salt
1 tsp dry mustard
2 Tbsp sugar
1 cup tomato sauce or catsup
1 onion chopped
1 Tbsp chili powder
Soak beans overnight. Drain and add other ingredients. Cook for ½ hour on top of stove. Put in bean pot and cook in slow oven 200_ - 250_F for 3 hours, or turn heat down and cook in a heavy saucepan on top of stove until tender.
1 cup rice
¼ cup shortening
¼ cup chopped onion, meat, celery, or other vegetables
1 tsp salt
3 ½ cups water
Heat shortening in skillet. Add rice. Cook, stirring constantly, about 10 minutes or until lightly browned. Add vegetables and continue cooking 2 or 3 minutes. Add salt and water. Simmer over low heat 20 to 25 minutes or until rice is tender and excess liquid has evaporated. 6-8 servings.
Peanut Butter Cookies
½ cup shortening
½ cup white sugar
½ cup brown sugar
1 egg or egg substitute
½ cup peanut butter
1 ½ cups white flour or wheat flour
½ tsp soda
¼ tsp salt
Cream shortening. Gradually add sugars, beating until smooth and fluffy. Add egg and beat well. Add peanut butter and mix thoroughly. Sift flour, soda, and salt into mixture. Drop by teaspoon onto ungreased cookie sheet. Press down with floured fork. Bake at 350_F until lightly browned. About 8-10 minutes.
2 cups soybean pulp
2 cups cooked brown rice
2 Tbsp vegetable fat
1 onion chopped fine
½ Tbsp soy sauce
½ tsp salt
Flavor with garlic or sage
½ cup whole wheat buttered bread crumbs.
Mix all ingredients (except bread crumbs) together. Shape into patties. Roll in whole wheat bread crumbs. Bake in greased pan at 350_F until brown, or warm in frying pan. Serve with gravy, if desired. (To make soybean pulp: Soak beans I water for at least 3 hours. Boil beans in water for 15 minutes. Drain. Mix beans thoroughly by pounding or in a blender with enough water to puree into a stiff paste.)
1 pound mashed soybeans
1 cup whole wheat flour
2 eggs or egg substitute
1 Tbsp salt
1 tsp garlic
1 tsp oregano
1 tsp basil
Mix all ingredients together. Spoon into hot oil in fry pan. Cook on medium heat until brown and crusty. Use in place of ground meat.
Chevron Chemical Company. All About Vegetables West Edition. San Francisco, CA Chevron Chemical Company, 1973
Chevron Chemical Company. Twelve-Months Harvest San Francisco CA: Chevron Chemical Company
Ball Blue Book, New Revised
Consumer Products Company
Consumer Affairs Department
P.O. Box 2729
Muncie, IN 47307-0729
Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations. Bigger Crops and Better Storage. The Role of Storage in the World Food Supplies. Rome, Italy: 1969. World Food Problems #9
Kerr Glass Manufacturing Corp. Kerr Home Canning and Freezing Book. Sand Springs Oklahoma 74063
Sunset Books. Vegetable Gardening. Menlo Park, CA Lane Books, 1977
James Underwood Crockett and the Editors of Time-Life. Vegetables and Fruit New York: Time, Inc. 1972
American Horticulturalist Mount Vernon, VA: American Horticulture Society. 6 times a year
American Vegetable Grower Western Edition. Willoughby, OH Meister Publishing Company. Monthly
Experiment Station Quarterly Research Publication Presents findings and research being conducted. Can be obtained from each land-grant university. Issued quarterly.
Horticulture Boston MA Horticulture Society. Issued monthly
Western Fruit Grower Willoughby, OH Meister Publishing Company. Issued monthly
Land Grant University and USDA Publications
Information on various subjects may be obtained by writing to the publications mailing service in the land-grant university in your state. If information is not available in your area, materials listed below may be ordered. Materials marked with an Asterisk (*) may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, WA D.C. 20402
*Beekeeping for Beginners USDA Home and Garden Bulletin # 158
Raising Bees Utah State University Logan UT 84322 # EC157
Selecting and Operating Beekeeping Equipment USDA Farmers Bulletin # 2204
Canning Foods: Fruits, Vegetables, Pickles, Jellies Agricultural Extension Service, University of Tennessee, Knoxville TN 37916 # 724
Canning Fruits and Vegetables Pennsylvania State University College of Agriculture Extension Service, University Park, PA 16802 #561
Canning Fruits and Vegetables in North Carolina North Caroling Agricultural Extension Service North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27607. # HE203
Home Canning of Fruits Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of CA # 2269
*Home Canning of Fruits and Vegetables USDA Home and Garden Bulletin #8 May 1976
*Home Canning of Meats and Poultry USDA Home and Garden Bulletin # 106
Home Canning of Vegetables Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of CA
*How to Make Jellies, Jams and Preserves at Home USDA Home and Garden Bulletin # 56
*Making Pickles and Relishes at Home USDA Home and Garden Bulletin # 92
*Drying Foods at Home USDA Home and Garden Bulletin #217
Drying Fruits and Vegetables at Home College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, University of AZ, Tucson AZ 85721
Home Drying of Fruits and Vegetables Extension Service, UT State University Logan UT 84322 # EC 332
How to Build a Portable Electric Food Dehydrator Bulletin Mailing Service, Industrial Building, Oregon State University, Extension Service, Corvallis, OR 97331 # 855
Handbook for Freezing Foods Mabel Doremus and Ruth Klippstein, Extension Service, New York State College of Human Economics, Cornell University. Malling Room Building 7 Research Park, Media Services Ithaca, NY 14853 Bulletin # 1179
Home Freezing of Fruits Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of CA
*Home Freezing of Fruits and Vegetables USDA Home and Garden Bulletin #10
Home Freezing of Vegetables Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of CA
*Home Care of Purchased Frozen Foods USDA Home and Garden Bulletin # 69
*Home Freezing of Poultry and Poultry Main Dishes
USDA Agriculture Information Bulletin # 371
*Freezing Meat and Fish in the Home USDA Home and Garden Bulletin # 93
Vegetable Freezing Methods Flora Bardwell and Georgia Lauritzen, Cooperative Extension Service, UT State University, Logan UT 84322 EL 168
Ball Freezer Book Vol 1 No 1 Ball Corporation Muncie IN 47306
Gardening Cooperative Extension Service, University of Georgia, College of Agriculture, Athens GA 30601
Getting Along with Your Garden Ezra Taft Benson Institute, Brigham Young University, Provo UT 84602
Grow a Vegetable Garden Agricultural Extension Service University of Tennessee, Knoxville TN 37916 # 645
Grow Your Own Vegetables Extension Service, College of Agriculture, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 # 559
Growing Vegetables Cooperative Extension Service University of New Hampshire, Durham NH 03824
The Home Vegetable Garden Cooperative Extension Service College of Agriculture, University of Connecticut, Stoors CT 06268 # 69-36
Home Gardens Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture, WA State University, Pullman WA 99163 # 422
Home Vegetable Garden Cooperative Extension Service, Michigan State University East Lansing MI 48823
Home Vegetable Gardening Cooperative Extension Service, Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210 # 287
Introduction to Home Gardening New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14850 # 1049
*Minigarden for Vegetables USDA Home and Garden Bulletin # 163
Growing Vegetables - Recommended Varieties for Utah Alvin R. Hanson and Melvin S. Burningham, UT State University, Logan UT 84322 # EC313
Vegetable Gardening in Containers Texas Agricultural Extension Service, The Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX 77843
# MP 1150
How to control Insects and Diseases in Your Home Orchard Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of CA # 2249
*Insects and Diseases of Vegetables in the Home Garden USDA Home and Garden # 380
Vegetable Garden Insect Control Reed S. Roberts, Cooperative Extension Service UT State University Logan UT 84322 Insect Control Series #27
Utah Fruit Pest Control Utah State University Logan UT 84322 # EC299
Household Insect Control
Reed S. Roberts, Cooperative Extension Service UT State University Logan UT 84322 # CS23
Fruit Spray Program for the Home Orchardist Extension Service UT State University Logan UT 84322 # EL137
Pruning for Fruit Extension Service College of Agriculture Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 Special Circular 126
Pruning the Home Orchard
Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture, WA State University Pullman WA 99163 Extension Bulletin 660
Training and Pruning Fruit Trees Around the Home Division of Agricultural Sciences University of CA # 2252
Pruning the Home Orchard Extension Service UT State University, Logan UT 84322
*Keeping Food Safe to Eat USDA Home and Garden Bulletin # 162
*Can Your Kitchen Pass the Food Storage Test? DHEW Publication No. (FDA) 74-2052
Food Storage in the Home Flora Bardwell, Reed S. Roberts, D.K. Salunkhe, Extension Service UT State University, Logan UT 84322 # EC257
Home Storage of Wheat and Grain Products DeVere R. McAllister and Reed S. Roberts, Extension Service UT State University, Logan UT 84322 Extension Circular 371
*Storing Vegetables and Fruits in Basements, Cellars, Outbuildings, and Pits USDA Home and Garden Bulletin # 119
Storing Perishable Foods in the Home USDA Home and Garden Bulletin # 18
Twenty-three Ways to Save Water in an Emergency Extension Service College of Agriculture Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 # 199
Emergency Water: Home Storage and Emergency Disinfection Department of Social Services, Division of Health, State of Utah P.O. Box 2500, SLC UT 84110